What in the world is a Shia?

Posted: December 1, 2010 in Other Islamic Literature, Say what?, Traditional
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    THE SECTS OF SHI`ISM 

    The founder of the Shiah religion was the Jew, Ibn Sabã Yemeni. As the result of his plots against Islam, the army of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) had split into four groups.

    1. The group known as Shiah-e-Oola or the initial Shiahs. They were the sincere supporters of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu). They were all members of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama`ah. They recognised and accepted the senior Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) and the holy wives of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). They honoured the Sahaabah and the holy wives in all respects. The group of sincere supporters did not fall into the trap of shaitaan as the other groups had.

    2. The second group is known as the Tafdheeliyah. They assigned to Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) superiority over all the Sahaabah. This group consists of the rank and file followers of the accursed Ibn Sabã. They had fallen prey to the evil conspiracy of Ibn Sabã and had to a degree accepted his teaching.

    Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) had severely threatened them. He warned that he would flog them eighty lashes if they assigned superiority to him over Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Umar (radhiallahu anhuma).

    3. The third group is called Sabbayyah or Abusers. They are also called Tabarraiyyah. They believed that all the Sahaabah were oppressors, usurpers, Munafiq and Kaafir. The members of this group constitute the middle-class of the followers of the shaitaan, Ibn Sabã.

    This group derived maximum capital for their evil from the conflicts which had developed between the two camps of Sahaabah.

    In his Khutbahs, Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) had disassociated himself from these vile anarchists and mischief mongers.

    4. The fourth group is called the Ghullaat or the Extremists. They were the elite and closest students and followers of Ibn Sabã. They believed in the divinity of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) like the Christians believe in the godhood of Hadhrat Isaa (alayhis salaam). From their belief of godhood, they later shifted their position and propagated the doctrine of ‘Hulool’, i.e. Allah Ta`ala’s ‘Rooh’ descended into Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and he was god incarnate.

    Some of the Ghullaat were burnt out alive on the instructions of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu).

    Thus, the beginning of Shi`ism with its numerous varieties and off-shoots developed from the latter three groups of Hadhrat Ali’s (radhiallahu anhu) army or followers. The father and vile progenitor of them all was Ibn Sabã, the Jew. From this it will be seen that the original root of Shi`ism consists of three sects.

    GHULLAAT (EXTREMISTS)

    The Ghullaat Shiahs consist of 24 sects, as follows:

    1. Sabaaiyyah
    They are the close companions of Abdullah Ibn Sabã, the Jew who was the founder of Shi`ism. Their pivotal doctrine was “Ali is truly God.”

    They propagated that he was not killed, rather, Ibn Muljim (the murderer of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) had killed a devil who had assumed the appearance of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu). According to their corrupt belief , he hid himself in a cloud. Thunder is in fact, the voice of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and lightning is his whip. Therefore, whenever they see lightning and hear thunder, they recite:

    “Durood and Salaam on you, O Ameerul Mu’mineen!”

    They further claim that after some time Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) will descend from the clouds and destroy his enemies.

    2. Mufaddhaliyyah

    They are the followers of Mufaddhal Sairafi. Seeing the evil and corruption of the Sabaaiyyah, he formed a new sect. He propagated that the relationship of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) with Allah Ta`ala was like Hadhrat Isa’s (alayhis salaam) relationship with Allah Ta`ala. He forged a doctrine of trinity similar to the Christian belief.

    According to this sect, Nubuwwat (Prophethood) had not ended. Whoever attains unity with God is a Nabi. Many members of this sect had claimed Nubuwwat.

    3. Sareeghiyyah (also known as Sareefiyyah)

    Their religion is similar to the Mufaddhaliyyah. The only difference is that they confine the god-incarnate-in-man concept to the following five persons: Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), Hadhrat Abbaas, Hadhrat Ali, Hadhrat Jafar and Hadhrat Aqeel (radhiallahu anhum).

    4.Bazeeghiyyah

    They are the followers of Bazeegh Bin Yunus. They believe in the godhood of Hadhrat Jafar Saadiq (rahmatullah alayh). Besides him, no other Imaam enjoyed godhood. Nevertheless, they believed that Wahi, Mi`raaj and reaching the Angelic realms are common to the other Imams.

    5. Kaamiliyyah

    They are the followers of Abu Kamil, who propagated the concept of reincarnation, namely, the transmigration of souls from one body to another. Thus, according to them the Divine Soul (Allah Ta`ala) transmigrated firstly into the body of Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salaam), then into the body of Hadhrat Sheeth (alayhis salaam), and in this way from Nabi to Nabi and Imaam to Imaam. The soul of the children of Adam (alayhis salaam) also migrate automatically from one body to another.

    They brand all the Sahaabah kaafir for not having made Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) the Khalifah. In fact, they paradoxically brand Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) too a kaafir for not claiming his ‘right’. But, in spite of this, it is their belief that Allah Ta`ala descended into the body of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu).

    6. Mughiriyyah

    They are the followers of Mughirah Bin Saeed Ajli who claimed that Allah Ta`ala is in the form of a Noorani male. On his head is a crown of Noor (celestial light). His heart is a fountain of wisdom.

    7. Janaahiyyah

    They too subscribe to the concept of reincarnation. They believe that the Divine Being transmigrated first into Hadhrat Adam (alayhis salaam). The process then continued in the following order;-

    Sheeth (alayhis salaam), then all the Ambiyaa (alayhimus salaam) in succession; after Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) into the bodies of Hadhrat Ali, Hadhrat Hasan, Hadhrat Husein and Hadhrat Muhammad Bin Hanfiyyah (radhiallahu anhum). Thereafter, into the bodies of Abdullah Bin Muawiyyah Bin Abdullah Bin Jafar (radhiallahu anhu).

    The meaning of Imaamat according to this sect is incarnation of the soul of god in the human body.

    They refute the events and affairs of Aakhirah and believe that all Haraam things are Halaal.

    8. Bayaaniyyah

    They are the followers of Bayaan Bin Sa`man. They too subscribe to the belief that Allah Ta`ala is incarnate in human bodies. It is their belief that Allah Ta`ala is incarnate in the body of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Thereafter, he entered the body of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu), then Muhammad Bin Al-Hanfiyyah and then Bin Sa`man.

    The fusion of the divine being into the human being is like the fire in a burning coal according to the doctrine of this sect.

    9. Mansuriyyah

    They are the followers of Abu Mansur Ajali. They do not believe in termination of Nubuwwat. The world, according to them, is eternal. They refute the Shariah which they say is the fabrication of the Ulama. They deny Jannat and Jahannum. After Imaam Baaqir (rahmatullahi alayh) they believe Abu Mansur to be the Imaam.

    10. Ghamaamiyyah

    They are also called Rabee-ah. They believe that Allah Ta`ala descends to earth concealed in clouds during spring. After touring the earth He again ascends into the heaven. The effects of spring such as flowers, fruit, etc. are the products of this Divine descent.

    11. Amwiyyah (Imaamiyyah)

    They believe that Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) was Rasulullah’s (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) co-partner in Risaalat (Prophethood).

    12. Tafweedhiyyah

    They believe that after creating the world, Allah Ta`ala assigned its affairs to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). All things on earth, they claim, are lawful for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). A group of this sect claimed that all affairs of the world were assigned to Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu). However, they later propagated that the assignment was to both.

    13. Khattaabiyyah

    They are the followers of Abul Khattaab Muhammad Bin Rabeeb al-Akhda` al-Asadi. They believe that all the Imams were the sons of Allah Ta`ala and Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and Ja`far Saadiq (rahmatullahi alayh) are gods. Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) is called Ilaah-e-Akbar (the greatest god) and Ja`far Sadiq Ilaah-e-Asghar (the smaller god). Abul Khattaab is accepted as a prophet to whom all previous Ambiyaa have assigned their Prophethood. Obedience to Abul Khattaab is compulsory on entire creation. He advocated the permissibility of false testimony for members of his sect.

    14. Ma`mariyyah

    They believe in the Prophethood of Hadhrat Ja`far Saadiq (rahmatullahi alayh). After him they believe that Abul Khattaab was the Nabi. He waived the rules and restrictions of the Shariah. This group is an off-shoot of the Khattaabiyyah sect.

    15. Gharaabiyyah

    They believe that Hadhrat Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) erred in the delivery of Wahi. Instead of taking the Qur`anic Revelation to Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu), he erroneously delivered it to Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The error was because of the profound resemblance between the appearance of Hadhrat Ali and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), i.e. according to this sect. Thus Jibraeel (alayhis salaam) was unable to differentiate. The ignorant ones of this sect invoke la`nat (curse) on Hadhrat Jibraeel (alayhis salaam).

    16. Thababiyyah

    They believe that Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is the Nabi while Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) is god. They also propagated that the resemblance between Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and Ali (radhiallahu anhu) was total and perfect. This group is an off-shoot of the Gharabiyyah sect (No.15).

    17. Thammiyyah

    They subscribe to the doctrine of the godhood of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu). They claimed that Ali had sent Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) to invite mankind to him (i.e. Ali – the god), but, instead, he called people to himself (i.e. Muhammad -sallallahu alayhi wasallam). It is for this reason that they revile Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). It is on account of their criticism that they became known as Thammiyyah (the Revilers).

    18. Ithnaiyyah (The Dualists)

    They believe in the duality of godhood, i.e. both Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) were god. The sect is sub-divided into two groups. One group believes in the superiority of Muhammad’s godhood while the other group proclaims the superiority of Ali’s godhood.

    This sect branched out of the Thammiyyah (No 17).

    19. Khamsiyyah (The Fivers)

    They believe in the doctrine of five in one, namely, Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), Fatima, Ali, Hasan, Hussein (radhiallahu anhum) were all gods. Like the Christians who have the three-in-one concept, this sect subscribe to the five-in-one concept – that these five, while in different bodies were in reality one god. They do not differentiate in the godhood of the five.

    20. Naseeriyyah

    They believe that Allah is incarnate in Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and in his descendants, namely, those among his descendants who are known as Imaam. Sometimes they directly referred to Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) as Ilah (god).

    This sect still survives in part of Syria and its members are called Alawis.

    21. Ishaaqiyyah

    They believe that the world is at no stage without a Nabi. They also subscribe to the belief of the divinity of Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) and the Imaams. While they believe in the incarnation of god in the Imams after Ali, they differ regarding the repositories of Imaamat after Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu).

    22. Ghalbaaniyyah

    They too subscribe to the doctrine of Hadhrat Ali’s godhood. They further believe in Hadhrat Ali’s superiority over Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). They claimed that Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) pledged allegiance (bay`t) to Hadhrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu)

    23. Razaamiyyah

    They also subscribe to the belief of Allah’s incarnation in their Imaams. The chain of the Imams according to them is as follows:

    Hadhrat Ali – Muhammad Ibnul Hanfiyyah – Abu Hashim – Ibnul Muhammad ibnul Hanfiyyah – Ali Bin Abdullah Bin Abbaas. They subscribe to the doctrine of Hulool, i.e. their Imaams are god-incarnate. They abandoned the Faraa`idh (compulsory obligations) and legalized the prohibitions.

    24. Muqnaiyyah

    They believed that after Imaam Hussein (radhiallahu anhu) Muqnah was god. They believed in the four-in-one concept of godhood. The constituents of this concept were Ali, Hasan, Hussein and Muqnah. Originally, Muqnah was a member of the Ismaili sect, but became among the Ghullaat with his claim of godhood.

    From the aforegoing it will be seen that the fundamental basis or doctrine of all the Ghullaat Shiah sects is the concept of Uloohiyat (godhood) or Hulool (incarnation of god in man).

    Regarding the choice in determination of the Imams, the three sects Kisaaniyyah, Zaidiyyah and Imaamiyyah, are the guiding factors. Without going into an elaboration of the beliefs of these sects, only their names will be mentioned to give an idea of the chameleon- like metamorphosis of Shi`ism -it being a religion of opportunism changing from one hue to another as dictated by circumstances, expediencies and base personal motives of Satanism.

    The Kisaaniyyah

    This sect is divided into six sub-sects: Kuraibiyyah, Ishaaqiyyah, Harbiyyah (Kindiyyah), Abbaasiyyah, Tayyaariyyah and Mukhtariyyah.

    The Zaidiyyah

    This sect split into nine sub-sects: Zaidiyyah, Jaardawiyyah, Jareeriyyah, Tabariyyah, Al-Ghamiyyah, Daqniyyah, Khashbiyyah, Ya`qubiyyah and Saalihiyyah.

    The Imaamiyyah

    This sect is divided into 34 groups: Husainiyyah, Nafsiyyah, Hukmiyyah (Hishaamiyyah), Saalimiyyah (Jawaaleeqqiyyah), Shataaniyyah (Nu`maaniyyah), Zaraariyyah, Yunusiyyah, Badaaiyyah, Mufawwidha, Baaqariyyah, Haadhariyyah, Naadosiyyah, Amaariyyah, Mubaarakiyyah, Baatiniyyah, Qarmatiyyah, Shameetiyyah, Maiminiyyah, Khalfiyyah, Barqiyyah, Janaabiyyah, Sab`eeyyah, Mahdawiyyah, Musta`liyyah, Nazaariyyah, Aftahiyyah, Ishaaqiyyah, Qat`iyyah, Musawiyyah, Mutwariyyah, Rajiyyah, Ahmadiyyah, Ithna Ashriyyah and Ja`fariyyah.

    The above information is an excerpt from the book “Shi’ism Exposed”. This book is written by The Mujlisul Ulama of South Africa. It is exceptionally well-researched and sourced from Shi’a literary works. If you would like to read more regarding the intricate details of Shi’a beliefs, you may view the book here:

    Shi’ism Exposed

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