Part Three of a detailed analysis of the errors of Quraysha Ismail Sooliman (5 years studies at Darul Uloom Pretoria, Freelance Journalist and Political Science Honour’s Student, University of Pretoria)

The writer states the following hadith:

“The Prophet Muhammad SAW said:

‘Do not prevent your women from attending the mosque if they seek your permission to do so’ [Sahih Muslim]”

Our response:

This hadith is stated without authentic commentary provided by authoritative Muhadditheen who spent their entire lives,day and night in the pursuit and preservation of true knowledge.

We provide hereunder some of the statements of the true scholars regarding this Hadith and other Ahaadith which are related:

This hadith appears in Saheeh Muslim Page 183 [Qadeemi].

The chapter is called, “The chapter on women going out to the Masjid when there is no fitnah and she must go out without perfume”.

The commentary of Imaam An Nawawi rahimahullah on this hadith entails the following:

The Ulama have stipulated conditions which are taken from hadith. Amongst other conditions, the following conditions are necessary before a woman is allowed to attend the Masjid:

1.      A woman must not be perfumed.

2.      A woman must not be adorned with jewellery etc.

3.      A woman’s voice must not be heard.

4.      A woman must not wear showy or gaudy clothing.

5.      There should not be any mixing with men.

6.      The woman should not be young.

7.      There should be no fear on the road to and from the Masjid. There should be no fear of any harm, corruption or wrong being committed/ taking place.

[Footnotes of Saheeh Muslim Pg 183, Qadeemi]

The following ahadeeth are recorded in authentic books of hadith and pertain to the issue of women attending the Masjid.

Hadith no. 1: Ibn ‘Umar radhiAllahu anhu reported that Nabi sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Do not prevent the female servants of Allah from the mosques of Allah.” (Sunan Abi Dawud)

Hadith no. 2: Abu Hurairah radhiAllahu anhu reported that Nabi SallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Do not prevent the female servants of Allah from visiting the mosques of Allah, however they ought to go out tafilaat*.” (Sunan Abi Dawud)

*We will explain “Tafilaat” shortly.

Imaam an Nawawi has mentioned that total safety and surety against fitnah is a precondition for the permissibility of women attending the masjid. (Saheeh Muslim Juz 1 Pg 183; Bazlul Majhood Juz 4 Pg 160)

In Laamiud Duraari, it is mentioned that the words “female servants of Allah” is indicative of the fact that permission is based upon the woman being a true slave of Allah (inwardly and outwardly) and not a slave to the world and to her desires. (Bazlul Majhood Vol 4 Pg 161)

Tafilaat is translated as “without perfume” or “without displaying any sort of adornment”. In Qamoos it is mentioned: “For example, a shoulder (of meat or of an animal) which has gone off and whose smell has changed is described as ‘tafil’. (Bazlul Majhood Vol 4 Pg 161)

Ibn Raslaan has mentioned the incident of Zubayr radhiAllahu anhu and his wife Aatika bint Zayd. He did not clearly prevent his wife from attending the masjid because of the hadith. So one day he sat on the road and when she passed him, he pulled her clothes. Thereupon, she stopped going to the masjid. Upon being questioned why, she replied, “We used to go out when people were people.” (Bazlul Majhood Juz 4 Pg 160)

Ibn Hajar has mentioned: “The essence of the speech of Imaam Nawawi and that of Zarkashi is that, if in their going out, there occurs mixing with men in the masjid or on the way or the fear of fitnah is great due to them adorning themselves and going out, IT IS HARAAM FOR THEM TO GO OUT and the right of permission rests with the husband; and it is waajib upon the Imaam or his deputy to stop them (from going to the Masjid). (Bazlul Majhood Vol 4 Pg 161)

Allaamah Baaji mentions: “In it (the hadith) is proof that the husband has the option of preventing his wife and that there is no going out except with his permission.” (Awjazul Masaalik Juz 4 Pg 207)

Hadith no. 3: Ibn ‘Umar radhiAllahu anhu reported that Nabi SallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Do not prevent your women from visiting the mosques; but their houses are better for them (for praying).” (Sunan Abi Dawud)

This hadith is emphasizing the fact that salaah in their (women’s) homes is better for them than salaah in the masjid with Jama’ah because it is more concealing. The second part of this hadith encourages women to read their salaah at home because it is more virtuous, more rewarding and more pleasing to Allah Ta’ala.

We should now ask ourselves as to why would any sane, rational person want to leave something which is more virtuous, more rewarding and more pleasing to Allah Ta’ala for something which is less? If the true aim is the pleasure of Allah, why would anybody prefer to practise upon that act which is less pleasing to Allah? It is mentioned in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaibah Juz 2 Pg 277: “A woman is to be concealed and the closest a woman is to Allah is when she is in the depths of her home…” Therefore what is the aim when a woman chooses to make salaah anywhere else besides her home?

Abu ‘Amr ash Shaibaani mentioned, ‘I saw ibn Mas’ood radhiAllahu anhu throwing stones at the women, chasing them from the Masjid on the day of Jumu’ah.’ (Musannaf ibn Abi Shaibah Juz Pg 277)

Allaamah Aini has narrated from Imaam Maalik that this hadith (Hadith no. 3) is understood to refer to very very old women. (Awjazul Masaalik Juz 4 Pg 207)

Hadith no. 4: ‘Abdullah ibn Umar radhiAllahu anhu reported that Nabi SallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Allow women to visit the mosque at night.” A son of his (Bilal) said: “I swear by Allah, we shall certainly not allow them because they will take it as “*daghl”. I swear by Allah, we shall not allow them. He (ibn Umar) spoke to him harshly and became angry at him and said: “I tell you that Nabi SallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said: “Allow them;” yet you say: We shall not allow them.”*Daghl will be explained shortly.

The first part of the hadith places emphasis on permission being granted for women to visit the masjid at night. The commentary of this hadith which is found in Bazlul Majhood states: “Because it is a time when the roads are empty and the time of darkness was the time when the causes of fitnah would decrease.”

Imaam an Nawawi has mentioned “Daghl” refers to corruption, deception and other forms of evil, meaning the women would use this permission to go out as a stepping stone towards great corruption and evil. (Bazlul Majhood Juz 4 Pg. 163).

In Al Kanzul Mutawari, the following explanation appears:

“Imaam Bukhari has named the chapter “Chapter No 556: Women going to the Masjid at night and in galas”

Note: The Muhadditheen went to great lengths explaining the wisdom behind Imaam Bukhaari’s choice of names for the chapters of Saheeh Al-Bukhaari. We reproduce hereunder the following explanation as mentioned in Al Kanzul Mutawaari Juz 5 Pg 448.

“In it (the name of the chapter) is an indication that the permission for women going out is linked to the absence of fitnah in any form at all. When the night and galas were times in which fitnah was non-existent, it was permissible for them to go out in these two times. But when they both become reasons for fitnah as we witness in our error, then even in these two times it is not permissible for women to be present in the Masjid.

Imaam Bukhaari, in restricting the naming of this chapter with the night and the galas in indicative of the fact that he is pointing to the permissibility of women leaving for the Masjid only under the existence of this condition (at night and galas). The vast majority of commentators have mentioned, ‘Imaam Bukhaari is indicating via his choice of naming this chapter that the Ahaadeeth narrated in the chapter are tied to the condition which he has mentioned in the name.’

The overwhelming majority of Fuqaaha have taken the stance that women are to be prevented from going out in this era (general prohibition) because of what we witness (all-encompassing fitnah). Ibn Daqeeq Al Eid has mentioned, ‘This hadeeth applies to all women(but it must be borne in mind) that the Fuqaaha have attached conditions to it (the permissibility of women attending the masjid): She must not be perfumed; She must be dressed shabbily. It must also be borne in mind that whatever fulfils the function of perfume will be in the same category of perfume. The reason for perfume being impermissible is because of it inciting passion so good clothes, jewellery and open adornment would fall into this category, likewise mixing with men.’” ( Al Kanzul Mutawari Juz 5 Pg 448)

“Ibn Al Arabi mentions in the commentary of Tirmidhi, after mentioning the narrations of the Chapter, ‘The original law of the Shari’ah is that it is permissible for women to go out for Salaah and there are many ahadeeth which testify to this and when she goes out, she is to go out shabbily dressed in an unattractive manner as mentioned by various narrations. The literal meaning of the word ‘tafil’ which is translated as ‘shabbily’ is used by the Arabs to denote such a woman whom nobody would be attracted to. And Aisha radhiAllahu anha and Ibn Mas’ood radhiAllahu anhu and other sahaabah radhiAllahu anhum have clearly indicated that women are to be prevented from the Masjid and that they should necessarily stick to the innermost recesses of their homes.

Imaam At Thauri has mentioned, “It is Makrooh for a woman to leave her home and Ibn Mas’ood has also made similar statements. This is the view of Imaam Abu Hanifah and Abdullah Ibn Mubaarak.’

Allaamah Aini has mentioned, ‘The author of Hidaayah mentions, ‘It is highly detestable for women to attend congregational salaah. The word ‘congregational’ encompasses Jumu’ah, Eid, Salaatul Khusoof.

In the emergence of women, there is fear of fitnah which is a platform for haraam and what leads to haraam is also haraam.

Therefore it must be understood that the statements of the Fuqaaha wherein the word ‘Yukraahoo’ (detestable) is mentioned, their intention is Haraam.

With regards to the hadith of Ibn Umar, ‘When your women seek permission from you…’ that is when there is no fear of fitnah affecting them or of them becoming sources of fitnah. That (permissibility) was in their era in contrast to our era as surely corruption in our era is widespread and the corrupted ones are many and the hadith of Aishah radhiAllahu anha substantiates this.

Imaam An-Nawawi has mentioned, ‘There is no place for a woman which is better than her house even if she is very, very old. Ibn Mas’ood has mentioned, ‘A woman is aurah (an object of concealment) and the closest that she can be to Allah is when she is in the depths of her home and when she exits her home, Shaitaan lies in wait for her and Ibn Umar RadhiAllahu anhu used to stand and throw pebbles on women on the day of Jumu’ah expelling them from the Masjid.’ ” (Kanzul Mutawari Juz 5 Pg 450)

In al Kanz ul Mutawaari it is noted that Abdullah bin Umar would stand outside the Masjid on Jumuah and throw pebbles at the women in order to chase them from the Masjid. (Juz 5 Pg.450)

In the same book it is mentioned that Hasan al Basri was asked regarding a woman who took an oath that if her husband is released from prison she would read 2 rak’aat of Salaah in every masjid in Basrah in which Salaah is read. The summary of his reply was “If Umar Radi Allahu anhu found out about her, he would have smashed her head” (Juz 5 Pg 451) (This is also recorded in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaibah Juz 2 Pg 277)

“Allaamah Aini mentions, ‘If Aisha radhiAllahu anha had to see what the women of this era are doing then she would have voiced even greater objection and her statement was not made very lon after the death of Nabi sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam. The reason for this greater objection of hers is that the women of her era did not even do one thousandth of what the women of this era are doing.’

That was in the era of Allaamah Aini who died in the year 855 hijri, what then is the condition in our era which is filled with evil and corruption? ” (Kanzul Mutawari Juz 5 Pg 454)

The following is recorded in al Fiqhul Islami Juz 2 Pg 1172

“Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imaam Abu Yusuf and Imaam Mohammed have mentioned (Al Kitaab Ma’al Lubaab Juz 1 Pg 83; Fathul Qadir Juz 1 Pg 529; Haashiya Ibn Aabideen Juz 1 Pg 429) , ‘It is highly detestable (Haraam) [we have explained the usage of the term ‘highly detestable’ by the Fuqahaa earlier] for young women to attend Jama’ah.’ Imaam Abu Hanifah has mentioned, ‘There is no problem with an Ajooz (shall be explained shortly) going out for Fajr, Maghrib and Esha due to the fact that Fussaaq (flagrant mischief makers) are sleeping at the time of Fajr and Esha salaah…Imaam Abu Yusuf and Imaam Mohammed have permitted an Ajooz to attend all salaat due to the fact that none would desire them.

The fatawa of the Hanafi Madhab is that it is not permissible for women to attend the Jama’ah even if for Jumu’ah, Eid or a lecture. This is a blanket ruling and applies to all, young and old, during the day and the night. The reason for this is due to the corruption that abounds as well as the mischief that is openly practiced.

The Maaliki view is that if there is any fear of fitnah whatsoever then going out for salaah is not permissible at all for any woman.

Ibn Rushd has mentioned, ‘An Ajooz is a woman who is so old that no man would feel any sexual desire towards her, so much so that she is treated like a man i.e. without any sexual desire whatsoever.’” (In South Africa in the year 2010, there have been numerous instances of elderly, sickly, grandmothers and even great-grandmothers being sexually molested, abused and raped. This bears testimony to the fact that society has become corrupt to such an extent that even extremely old women are seen as sources of sexual pleasure by some individuals and thus the ruling of general impermissibility on all types of women going out for salaah will be established.)

“According to the Shafi’i and Hambali scholars, it is Makrooh for young women, those of attractive appearance to attend the Masjid wherein the men will be assembling for Salaat due to the possibility of fitnah. And the woman will read in her home. It is permissible for the elderly women to leave ‘tafilah’ with the permission of her husband whilst bearing in mind that her house is still better for her.”

Umm Salmah has narrated that Nabi sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘The best place for a woman to read salaah is the depth of her home.’ Narrated by Imaam Ahmad, recorded in Nailul Autaar Juz 3 Pg 131.”

The Shaafi’ authority, Shaikh Sulaiman Bujairmi (rahmatullah alayh) states:

“Women should not attend (the Musjid) whether they are young or old for Jamaat because of the appearance of corruption….. Today the Fatwa is on total prohibition in all Salaats.  This includes Jumuah, Eid, Istisqaa’, and gatherings of lectures, especially the lectures of the juhhaal (ignoramuses) who masquerade as Ulama while their motive is the gratification of lust and worldly acquisition.” – Tuhfatul Habeeb Ala Sharhil Khateeb

Which woman would intentionally shun that which the greatest of all creation (sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam) has mentioned to be the best?

This concludes Part Three of the detailed and academic response to ‘The Conclusion’ by Quraysha Ismail Sooliman

Read Part One, Part Two and Part Four of The True Conclusion:

https://muslimality.wordpress.com/2010/12/08/the-true-conclusion-part-1/

https://muslimality.wordpress.com/2010/12/15/the-true-conclusion-part-two/

https://muslimality.wordpress.com/2011/01/05/the-true-conclusion-part-four/

Advertisements
Comments
  1. quraysha ismail sooliman says:

    I am amazed that the author has overlooked 2 fundamental points in his analysis. 1. I clearly mention that the article refers to Eid salaat and hence am not in anyway suggesting that women attend the mosque for the 5 daily prayer,as this is not advisable, however the option to attend the mosque if they still wish to do and have their husband’s permission must be there, especially for the revert muslim who needs assistence and for the mussafir.2. The article makes a clear comment on the conditions that need to be satisfied before attending- I highlight modest dress, safety etc- did the author perhaps miss this comment in my writing? Finally, the entire article has nothing of my own opinion on the permissibility to attend or not- I simply quote the “fatwas and opinions” of the Shuyukh, the Khailphs AbuBakrN Umar and AliRA as well as the sahabaah. Do you see my opinion here? By claiming that your interpretation is correct, you (the author) are saying that the 3 Khailphs who said Eid salaat is waajib on women are incorrect, and likewise that all the Shuyukh and Sahabi I simply quoted are all wrong and misguided. This is the natural conclusion, because what I wrote is simply a re-write of THEIR verdicts, and so any disagreement with what I wrote is a ddisagreement with the verdicts of the greatest of scholars and the Rightly Guided Khaliphs. May Allah save us from such arrogance as to challenge the clear decision and action of the R Rightly Guided Khaliphs on their fatwas of the right of women to attend the Eid salaat!

    • Muslimah says:

      Initially we here at Muslimality thought it best to email sister Quraysha our response. Therefore please find below the email which was sent to sister Quraysha in response to her comment. Unfortunately we have not received any feedback from her (The email was sent 4th January 2011)

      Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu

      Respected Sister Quraysha

      Your comment dated 2010/12/24 at 10:39 am refers:

      Prior to publishing your comment on Muslimality together with our own response, we need to point out a few errors in your comment:

      1. Your comment reads,

      “I clearly mention that the article refers to Eid salaat and hence am not in anyway suggesting that women attend the mosque for the 5 daily prayer,as this is not advisable, however the option to attend the mosque if they still wish to do and have their husband’s permission must be there, especially for the revert muslim who needs assistence and for the mussafir.”

      In your article, The Conclusion, you make reference to the following hadith, “The Prophet Muhammad SAW said:‘Do not prevent your women from attending the mosque if they seek your permission to do so’ [Sahih Muslim]”

      Please do correct us if this hadith DOES NOT appear in YOUR ARTICLE. The copy of the article we have in our possession states the above hadith very clearly and so, we humbly request you to omit it if your article ONLY applies to Eid Salaah. Secondly, nowhere in your article do you CLEARLY outline the conditions and the importance of adhering to the conditions for ladies to attend Eid Salaah or any other salaah for that matter. You do not make mention of any of the great fuqaaha who have stressed the strictest conditions when ladies attend salaah in the Masjid.

      The glaring error regarding Abdullah bin ‘Amr radhiAllahu anhu and Abdullah bin Umar radhiAllahu anhu only serve as proof of a poorly researched article which you cannot possibly believe to pass off as any “conclusion” by any stretch of any imagination.

      2. Your comment reads:

      “The article makes a clear comment on the conditions that need to be satisfied before attending- I highlight modest dress, safety etc- did the author perhaps miss this comment in my writing? Finally, the entire article has nothing of my own opinion on the permissibility to attend or not”

      Your article, “the Conclusion” reads: “Men should check on their womenfolk when they are going out for the prayer to make sure that their hijaab is complete, because they are the “shepherds” who are responsible for their “flocks”. Men have the additional responsibility to ensure that the women’s prayer facility is safe, secure, clean, well lit and has adequate sound. Women are to be protected, honoured and above all they should be encouraged to learn by affording them the best facilities that can be provided. Women should go out in modest clothes, not adorned or wearing perfume. Menstruating women should not enter the mosque or prayer-place; they can wait in the car (it must be safe), for example, where they can hear the khutbah.”

      Refer to this link: http://www.islamqa.com/en/ref/books/56

      “Men should check on their womenfolk when they going out for the prayer to make sure that their hijaab is complete, because they are the “shepherds” who are responsible for their “flocks”. Women should go out in shabby clothes, not adorned or wearing perfume. Menstruating women should not enter the mosque or prayer-place; they can wait in the car, for example, where they can hear the khutbah.”

      We’ll assume that the reason the first and last sentence of the last paragraph in your article co-incidentally is worded exactly the same as that which appears on the islam qa website except for one minor detail. You changed the word “shabby” to “modest”.

      If we were to consider just this one flaw in your article, ‘The Conclusion’, we would be able to cover pages and pages worth of proofs detailing the importance of the use of the word ‘shabby’ instead of modest sister. There is a marked difference.

      Your article, ‘The Conclusion: Now each has the knowledge to decide’, is severely biased, misleading and when faced with the true facts, extremely confusing. The next explanation will serve to prove why exactly your article is confusing.

      3. Your comment reads:

      “I simply quote the “fatwas and opinions” of the Shuyukh, the Khailphs AbuBakrN Umar and AliRA as well as the sahabaah. Do you see my opinion here? By claiming that your interpretation is correct, you (the author) are saying that the 3 Khailphs who said Eid salaat is waajib on women are incorrect, and likewise that all the Shuyukh and Sahabi I simply quoted are all wrong and misguided. This is the natural conclusion, because what I wrote is simply a re-write of THEIR verdicts, and so any disagreement with what I wrote is a ddisagreement with the verdicts of the greatest of scholars and the Rightly Guided Khaliphs.”

      The main problem which we have with a statement such as this is this part in particular, “the 3 Khailphs who said Eid salaat is waajib on women”.

      We fail to see how the 3 Khulafaa e Rashideen could have said Eid Salaah is WAAJIB since the term “WAAJIB” was never formulated during their time. Was there something we missed? Also, the discussion in Subulus Salaam pertains to the emergence of women from their homes to attend the Eidgah. The mas’alah is not the wujoob of Eid Salaat. It is the issue of wujoob of emerging from the homes to attend the Eidgah, and on this issue there are three views according to the author of Subulus Salaam. Please read it again to verify this.

      Your comment reads, ‘I simply quote the “fatwas and opinions” of the Shuyukh,’. We find this to be highly insulting as you have either misquoted, selectively quoted Shuyukh or have provided an altogether biased opinion of some ‘scholars’ who are not even ‘scholars’. For example, you refer to Sheikh Wahbah Zuhaili as a “senior Hanafi scholar” when he is in fact a Shafi’i scholar (please verify this in his work, Al Fiqhul Islami). Surely, this is not research sister! Please do look out for Part 5 of The True Conclusion. We have sourced a COMPLETE refutation of all the scholars you have mentioned.

      4. Your comment reads

      “May Allah save us from such arrogance as to challenge the clear decision and action of the R Rightly Guided Khaliphs on their fatwas of the right of women to attend the Eid salaat!”

      Arrogance abounds in a title such as this : “The Conclusion: Now each has the knowledge to decide”

      Arrogance also abounds when the writer of such works puts her name to an article where most of what is in it is copied and pasted from various sources on the internet inclusive of the footnotes together with their numbers.

      Arrogance abounds when the writer does not provide a well-balanced, truthful article and then expects those who are able to actually do work, research etc. to remain silent and be in full support or what she is doing.

      Arrogance abounds when a person cannot do the work for herself and expects others to do the real work for her.

      Arrogance also abounds when the writer cannot take responsibility for blindly following translations of other people’s works because she cannot verify the translation for herself.

      Arrogance is also when a person finds it extremely difficult to accept when she is wrong or has erred.

      Arrogance is when a person uses emotive language and strays from the facts; arrogance is when you have to lie, selectively quote works of Fiqh, attribute false accusations to great scholars of Islam to sell an idea and dupe women and men into thinking that this is the way of Islam. (With that in mind, we urge you to address the issue of I’laa us Sunan as our scholars have also confirmed that Mohammed Wadee’s translation (and conclusions drawn thereof) were greatly erroneous. Please re-visit the text yourself otherwise, be on the lookout for Part Four of The True Conclusion where we will offer a more detailed translation of I’laa us Sunan than that which was offered in your previous article.)

      Yes we take great exception to such arrogance and surely may Allah protect us from such disgraceful behaviour. As women, such behavioural characteristics can never be commended. By the way sister Quraysha, it was highly presumptuous to assume that only a ‘he’ could have written ‘The True Conclusion’. The article was, in fact, written by a sister 🙂

      JazakAllah for taking the time to read this. We highly appreciate your feedback. Please do respond only when you are able to provide us with clear, academic proof and we will happily retract our statements and articles. If you are unable to provide such a response, we will have no choice but to publish your comment together with our refutation of your comment.

      Fi Amaanillah

      Was salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatu


      Muslimality

      فليقولوا ما يقولوا انت من ارجو رضاه
      Let them say what they want to say, it is Your (Allah’s) Pleasure that I seek…

      https://muslimality.wordpress.com